Tips for mom - 0〜5 months baby
Physical growth and development guidelines

Infants 0 to 1 months

A blur of feeding and sleeping
  • An infant tends to lose weight temporarily three to five days after birth. This weight is usually regained after a week.
  • Infants during this period do nothing but feed and sleep. They usually do not distinguish between morning and night, and spend most of the day sleeping.
  • Neonatal reflexes can be seen during this period, where infants move their hands and feet all over the place and also make body movements with no conscious control.

An infant’s job is to cry.
Answer your baby’s cries by taking actions such as feeding or changing diapers.

Height 46.3 - 58.4 cm
Weight 2.5 - 5.7 kg
Height 45.6 - 57.4 cm
Weight 2.4 - 5.4 kg

Infants 1 to 2 months

Infants may start gazing at their mother’s face
  • Weight increase is approximately one kg a months after birth, almost 30g a day.
  • Infants are able to stay awake longer during the day.
  • Intervals between feedings are longer, but feeding times are still irregular.
  • Their hand and feet motions become more active.
  • Infants start to gaze at their mother’s faces and react to sounds around them.
  • Infants start to coo around this period.

Enjoy physical contact with your baby by holding and touching him/her.

Height 51.1 - 62.2 cm
Weight 3.4 - 7.0 kg
Height 50.0 - 60.9 cm
Weight 3.2 - 5.4 kg

Infants 2 to 3 months

Infants start to find their voice
  • Infants start to follow moving objects with their eyes.
  • They will be able to turn their heads toward noises and voices.
  • Head control will be better, and babies will try to lift their head when placed on their tummy.
  • They will start to make “ah-ah” and “oh-oh” noises.
  • Infants will start to put their hands to their mouth and some may start sucking their fingers.

Infants will be much better at feeding by this time, and a feeding rhythm may be created.

Height 54,7 - 65,3 cm
Weight 4,4 - 7,9 kg
Height 53,2 - 63,8 cm
Weight 4,0 - 7,4 kg

Infants 3 to 4 months

Better head support and control
  • Infants usually weigh approximately two times more than their birth weight.
  • They will start to have control of their head, making it more steady when held.
  • Infants will be able to lift their head up high when put on their tummy.
  • Facial expressions become more colorful,and they will start to laugh when played with.
  • Infants will be able to stay awake longer during the day, and they start to distinguish day from night.

Holding your baby will be easier now that there is more head control. Enjoy going out, such as taking walks.

Height 57.6 - 67.8 cm
Weight 5.1 - 8.6 kg
Height 55.8 - 66.2 cm
Weight 4.6 - 8.1 kg

Infants 4 to 5 months

Infants start to have more interest in their surroundings
  • Almost all babies master head control by this time.
  • Their field of vision widens, and they start to put anything they can get their hands on into their mouths.
  • Holding babies in a standing-up position on your lap will cause them to push down with their feet.
  • They distinguish day from night, and will stay awake longer during the day and sleep at night.

Adjust your daily schedule to create a contrast between day and night by actions such as taking walks during the day.

Height 60.0 - 69.9 cm
Weight 5.6 - 9.2 kg
Height 58.0 - 68.2 cm
Weight 5.1 - 8.7 kg

Infants 5 to 6 months

Some babies may start to sit up
  • Slowly introduce solids during this period.
  • Infants will become able to sit on their own with a bit of support, on people’s laps or on a baby chair.
  • They will be able to stretch out and grasp things they are interested in.
  • They will touch anything and put everything in their mouths.
  • Some babies will start rolling over by themselves.
  • They will start to express likes and dislikes.

Infants during this period will touch and put anything in their mouths. Be aware of your baby’s environment and avoid putting objects that may pose a hazard around your baby.

Height 61.9 - 71.6 cm
Weight 6.1 - 9.7 kg
Height 59.9 - 70.0 cm
Weight 5.5 - 9.2 kg

General TIPS

Breast milk is the best source of nutrients

  • Breast milk is the best source of nutrients
    Breast milk has the best nutritional balance and digestion absorption for fast-growing infants, as it reduces the burden on a baby’s immature digestive system.
  • It protects infants from illnesses
    Colostrum, the thick, yellow breast milk that is released within a week after birth, contains various immunity substances that protect babies and their still weak resistance toward infectious diseases and allergies.
  • It keeps the mother healthy
    Breastfeeding promotes the contraction of the uterus after birth, speeding up after-birth healing.
  • It creates a stronger bond between mother and child
    Cradling and breastfeeding a baby creates a stable mental state and satisfaction for both mother and child.
  • It promotes development of face and jaw muscles
    As breastfeeding uses the muscles of the entire face such as around the mouth, both upper and lower jaws and cheeks, the muscles in a baby’s face are developed naturally.
  • It is fresh, sanitary and economical
    Breast milk is always fresh, sanitary and ready for consumption whenever the baby wants it. There is no need to buy it like formulas, making it economical as well.

Colostrum that protects infants from diseases

Breast milk contains various types of immunity substances. Colostrum especially has a high amount of immunoglobulin which protects mucous membranes from inflammation and infections. It also contains lactoferrin, lysozyme and white blood cells which are defense components against infection. These play an important part in preventing various types of infectious diseases during the newborn and infancy periods.

How to breastfeed your baby

  • Make sure your hands are clean.
  • Allow your baby to latch on to the entire areola.
  • Express some amount of breast milk before nursing if you find your breasts are too engorged.
  • Alternate between breasts by observing your baby’s nursing and your breast’s condition.
  • Empty your breasts of leftover breast milk after nursing.
  • Relax, talk gently to your baby and make a lot of physical contact during breastfeeding.
Cách cho con bú

How to produce good breast milk

Breast milk is generated by the stimulation caused during nursing. Three to four days after birth you will see less generation of breast milk, as babies will still have weak suckling reflexes and will not have gotten used to nursing yet. Allow your baby to nurse as much as he/she wants by observing they way he/she acts or cries, without worrying about nursing intervals.

Allow the baby to suck well

Stimulation coming from an infant sucking the mother’s nipple promotes lactation. This is because the hormone prolactin which promotes breast milk production increases within the blood when stimulated by nursing or a baby’s cries and scent. This hormone is also called a “mothering hormone”.

Eat well-balanced meals

Breast milk is created from the blood of the mother. As it is effected by the content of the mother’s eating habits, it is important to have well-balanced meals and to remain well hydrated.

Nurse in a relaxed state

Fatigue, worries and anxiety reduces the generation of breast milk. Try to get a sufficient amount of rest and sleep.

Eating habits for good breastfeeding

  • Eat evenly-balanced meals regularly three times a day
  • Supplement vitamins and minerals
  • Make efforts to actively receive high-quality protein
  • Eat foods high in calcium
  • Be well hydrated

Foods to be eaten in moderation

  • Foods high in calories and fat
  • Nonessential items that contain caffeine
  • As many fish and shellfish contain mercury, make sure not to eat these in excess
  • Avoid alcohol and smoking

Burping after feeding

Babies tend to gulp down air when they are feeding. The entrance of an infant’s stomach does not close securely, as it is still not fully developed. For this reason, infants often spit up breast milk or formula after feeding.

Hold your baby upright after feeding and rub his/her back to encourage a burp. When burping is unsuccessful, put your baby down with the head turned sideways so he/she will not choke on any breast milk or formula that may be spit up afterwards.

Concerns whether your breast milk is enough or not…

When you are worried if your infant is getting enough nutrition, check the following signs.

Signs that an infant is receiving a sufficient amount of breast milk
  • A steady weight gain.
  • Nursing at least eight times a day.
  • The sucking rhythm becomes slower and drinking sounds can be heard.
  • The infant is thriving with healthy and firm skin.
  • The infant is in a good mood until the next feeding session.
  • The infant has pale-colored urine six to eight times a day, and also stools three to eight times a day.
Các dấu hiệu trẻ bú đủ

“UNICEF/WHO (1993) /Takeo Hashimoto, translation by the Japanese Association of Lactation Consultants 2003) Breastfeeding Management and Promotion in a Baby-Friendly Hospital, Tokyo, Igaku-Shoin”

Signs that breast milk is insufficient
  • Not enough weight gain.
  • Each nursing session takes more than 30 minutes.
  • The infant is ill-tempered and cries right after nursing.
  • There is not enough urination and feces.
  • Feeding intervals are short.

Tips for mom - 6〜7 months baby
Physical growth and development guidelines

Infants 6 to 7 months

Babies will start to laugh when played with during this period
  • More babies will start rolling over by themselves.
  • Hand coordination becomes more developed, allowing them to get a firm grasp on objects.
  • Infants will be able to distinguish their mother from other people.
  • They become wiser and may start mimicking their parents.

Infants start to lose their immunity to diseases, which was received from their mothers when they were born. Be careful of diseases.

Height 63.6 - 73.2 cm
Weight 6.4 - 10.2 kg
Height 61.5 - 71.6 cm
Weight 5.8 - 9.6 kg

General TIPS

About “Weaning"

Weaning is the process where an infant is gradually accustomed to eating solid foods and foods with shape, instead of only feeding on breast milk or formula. An infant learns how to crush and swallow food during this period. The variety of foods an infant is able to eat will increase, and before long, the infant will be eating on his/her own.

Why weaning is necessary?

1 Nutritional supplementation for growth

Although breast milk and formula hold the best nutrients for an infant, it starts to become insufficient nutrition from 6 months.

2 Development of the digestive system

Infants will gradually become able to digest various types of food by eating food other than breast milk and formula, which in turn will result in more saliva and digestive fluid production.

3 Chewing practice

To have an infant gradually learn how to eat solids progressing from breast milk or formula, there is a need to allow the baby to foster his/her own chewing skills by providing food with softness and size according to the baby’s development.

4 Nurturing “eating power”

Nurture basic and healthy eating habits from infancy by providing various types of rich culinary experiences to create a healthy body and mind.

When should I start weaning my baby?

Start weaning your baby from 6 months if the baby shows the following signs:

  • Good head support
  • Is able to sit with support
  • Shows interest in food
  • Losing the tendency to push spoons out with the tongue

Each infant develops at his/her own rate. Observe your baby carefully and start slowly, without being too hasty.

Solid food guidelines and stages

Make progress according to your baby’s appetite, growth and development.

What is the well balanced weaning food ?
- Staple food, Main dish and Side dish -

Staple food

Grains such as rice, bread and noodles. It is mainly a source of carbohydrate energy.

Main dish

It is the main dish serving as a side dish using fish and meat, eggs, soy products, etc. It is mainly a source of high quality protein and fat.

Side dish

Cook with vegetables etc. It plays an important role to compensate for vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and so on which are deficient in staple food and main dish.

Source : Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan

Coping with food allergies

Infancy is a time where food allergies often appear in children. The reason allergies are so common between infants is because their digestive tract and digestive functions are still not fully developed, and also because of their insufficient immune functions. If you have any allergy concerns, consult your physician and take action following your physicians instructions.

Tips for progression

When starting solids, start off with ingredients less susceptible to allergies such as starch products and vegetables, and gradually introduce proteins such as fish, eggs and meat into the diet.

Be careful when introducing a new ingredient!

Make sure to introduce new foods “1 spoonful of 1 type a day”, and observe your child well before progressing. By doing so, you should be able to confirm any allergic reactions and also how well your baby is adjusting to that ingredient. Avoid giving too much at once, and gradually increase the amount every day. It recommended that mealtime takes place in the morning, so it will be possible to visit a hospital in case of an allergic reaction.

Weaning tips from 6 months baby

From 6 months (Start of weaning) –The swallowing stage –

Practice slightly closing the mouth and swallowing

Tips for progression:
  • Introduce new ingredients with one spoonful of one type a day, and gradually increase the amount.
  • Allow your baby to have as much breast milk or formula he/she wants after eating.
  • Start feeding your baby when he/she is in a good mood and healthy.
  • Allow your baby to get used to the texture and taste of food.
  • Progress to two meals a day after a months has passed.
  • Start the second meal of the day with 1/3 amount of the first meal, and gradually increase the amount.
  • Start off with mashed rice porridge.
  • Try some mashed vegetables and fruits as well.
  • When your baby gets more accustomed to solids, try mashed tofu or white-meat fish.

Tips on feeding | Getting accustomed to the spoon

  • Lightly place a spoon with weaning food on your baby’s lower lip. Wait for the mouth to open naturally.
  • Wait until the upper lip comes down to take in the food.
  • Remove the spoon horizontally, and wait for your baby to swallow before progressing to the next bite.

A feeding schedule example

Tips for mom - 7〜8 months baby
Physical growth and development guidelines

Infants 7 to 8 months

The start of stranger anxiety
  • Infants will be able to sit by themselves with no support.
  • “Stranger anxiety” starts. Infants may cry when an unfamiliar person tries to hold them.
  • Infants will start to enjoy playing “peek-a-boo”.
  • They will be eating solids twice a day.
  • Teeth will start emerging in some babies.

“Stranger anxiety” is proof that infants know that their mothers are special.

Height 65.1 - 74.7 cm
Weight 6.7 - 10.5 kg
Height 62.9 - 73.2 cm
Weight 6.1 - 10.0 kg

Infants 8 to 9 months

Infants will start to crawl
  • More babies will be able to crawl by this point.
  • Infants will be able to sit steadily by themselves and use both hands to play.
  • Infants will know their name when called.
  • Their mimicking skills improve, and they will be able to copy actions such as hitting a drum.
  • Infants will cry or call out loudly when they want attention.

Infants will be more mobile with further development of their sitting and crawling skills.

Height 66.5 - 76.2 cm
Weight 7.0 - 10.9 kg
Height 64.3 - 74.7 cm
Weight 6.3 - 10.4 kg

Weaning tipS for 7-8 months baby

Around 7 to 8 months | The mashing stage

During this period, babies learn how to mash food between their tongue and upper jaw

Tips for feeding
  • Create a regular rhythm of two meals a day.
  • Increase the variety of ingredients to allow your baby to experience more tastes and textures.
  • The second meal should now be about the same amount as the first meal.
  • Make it a habit to prepare a nutritious meal with ingredients rich in protein combined with vegetables.
  • There is no cause for alarm if vegetables appear undigested in your baby’s stools, as long as there is no diarrhea.

A feeding schedule example

Tips for mom - 9〜11 months baby
Physical growth and development guidelines

Infants 9 to 10 months

Some babies will start to pull themselves up into a standing position
  • Infants start to pull themselves up to stand.
  • They will now be able to enjoy playing by themselves.
  • Their fine motor skills will improve, enabling them to grasp small items in their hands.
  • Infants will start to display separation anxiety toward their mothers.
  • Solid food usually progresses to three meals a day during this period.

The love babies have for their mother increases, resulting in “separation anxiety”.
Make sure to reassure your baby as much as possible.

Height 67.7 - 77.6 cm
Weight 7.2 - 11.2 kg
Height 65.6 - 76.1 cm
Weight 6.6 - 10.7 kg

Infants 10 to 11 months

  • Infants will start to mimic adults.
  • Some babies will start cruising after pulling themselves up to stand.
  • Infants around this period will become more mobile by pulling themselves up to stand and crawling.
  • Their fine motor skills will improve, enabling them to hold items with their fingertips.
  • They will be able to speak repetitive syllables such as “mama” or “bye”.

Satisfy your child’s curiosity by playing copycat or using toys.

Height 69.0 - 78.9 cm
Weight 7.5 - 11.5 kg
Height 66.8 - 77.5 cm
Weight 6.8 - 11.0 kg

Infants 11 to 12 months

Standing by pulling themselves upright
  • A baby’s weight will be approximately three times heavier than that of birth, and about 1.5 times taller at 12 months.
  • Some babies will start pulling themselves up to a standing position and cruise while holding on.
  • They will start moving their bodies to the rhythm when music is played.
  • They will comprehend words and attempt to communicate by pointing and gestures.
  • They will start to have interest in picture books, and point and talk when read to.

Development speeds differ between babies, so there is no need for concern if your baby does not pull up to a standing position or cruise at this point.

Height 70.2 - 80.2 cm
Weight 7.7 - 11.8 kg
Height 68.0 - 78.9 cm
Weight 7.0 - 11.3 kg

Weaning tipS for 9-11 months baby

Around 9 to 11 months | The chewing stage

Babies start to chew food with their gums during this period

Tips for feeding
  • Put weight on creating a balanced meal schedule, and progress to three meals a day.
  • Make efforts to have the family eat together and enjoy mealtime.
  • An infant’s sense of taste will be further developing during this time. Try to season foods only lightly, and discover many ways to allow your baby to experience various tastes.
  • Use portions of adult meals to provide variety in your baby’s meal.
  • Make efforts to actively prepare foods rich in iron.
  • Make good use of follow-up formula products.

Beware of insufficient iron intake
Iron accumulated within a baby’s body decreases at around 9 months after birth, resulting in the possibility of iron deficiency.
We now know that iron deficiency in infancy can have effects on brain development, so we recommend actively eating iron-rich foods during this period to avoid iron deficiency.

A feeding schedule example

Tips for mom - 12〜18 months baby
Physical growth and development guidelines

Infants 12 to 15 months

  • More babies will be able to walk without support.
  • Their memories improve, and they will try to mimic adults.
  • They will start to say words with meaning, such as “mama” or “dada”.
  • Both the upper and lower front teeth will have emerged.

As more babies start to walk without support, more accidents will occur. Be careful and create a safe environment for your baby to explore.

Height 71.3 - 83.9 cm
Weight 7.8 - 12.7 kg
Height 69.2 - 82.7 cm
Weight 7.1 - 12.2 kg

Infants 15 to 18 months

They will start to assert their independence
  • Walking skills will improve.
  • Their vocabulary will increase.
  • Their motor skills will improve, and little by little, infants will start to use tools.
  • They will start to assert their independence, and want to do everything on their own, such as eating and changing clothes.

They will want to do everything on their own, so watch them attentively and allow them to challenge themselves.

Height 74.4 - 87.3 cm
Weight 8.4 -13.5 kg
Height 72.4 - 86.2 cm
Weight 7.7 - 13.0 kg

General TIPS

The role of snacks

Snacks are a part of daily meals because infants are not able to eat a large quantity of food at one sitting.

Snacks play an important role as it supplements nutrients and energy, provides chewing and finger food eating practice, and is a wonderful way to experience the joys of food.

Providing snacks

  • Decide the time and amount when giving snacks one to two times daily
    It is advised that snacks stay within 10 to 15% of the daily necessary caloric intake, which is 100 to 150 kcal for a 12 months old infant.
  • Think of the nutrient balance
    We recommend providing snacks that supplement meals, such as rice/bread, potatoes/fruit and dairy products.
    Actively provide foods with iron and calcium, which tend to be insufficient.
    When giving store-bought products to your child, snacks geared toward infants, with less sugary, salty tastes and calories are more preferable.
  • Provide snacks that will promote chewing and “finger foods”
  • Provide drinks such as tea with snacks
  • Be cautious of tooth decay

Weaning tipS for 12-18 months baby

Around 12 to 18 months (Completely weaned) | The eating stage

By now infants will be able to chew and mash food between their teeth and gums

Tips for feeding
  • Adjust daily schedules to regularly allow three balanced meals a day.
  • Provide finger food to promote enjoyment by eating on one’s own.
  • Use portions of adult meals to provide variety and a fun atmosphere for your baby’s meal.
  • Snacks are also an important mealtime for infants.
  • Create a designated time once to twice daily to provide snacks.
  • Start practicing with a regular cup when drinking formula.

Finger food
Eating with one’s hands is an indication of a desire to eat and also practice for eating on one’s own. Motor functions will develop starting with eating with hands to using a spoon. Respect your baby’s eagerness to eat and devise ways for your baby to enjoy finger foods that can be eaten with their hands.

A feeding schedule example

Oral Care for Infants
General TIPS

Oral Care for Infants

Although the timing when teeth starts to emerge differs between each individual baby, teeth usually start to emerge around 7 to 8 months after birth, and all ten primary teeth usually are present when an infant is two and a half years old.

Order of appearance
Thứ tự mọc răng

Data::Yoshiharu Mukai “Suku-suku Akachan” September 1997 publication, NHK (partially modified)

New teeth are very fragile

The enamel on primary teeth is less than half the thickness of that of permanent teeth. Baby teeth are also softer, more prone to cavities and rapid cavity progression.

Breast milk may cause cavities

Allowing babies to hold the breast or the bottle in their mouths for prolonged periods of time may cause dental decay.

The reason to care for primary teeth

Some may neglect to take care of primary teeth, because these teeth will be replaced by permanent teeth in a short while. However, cavities will prevent the baby from chewing food well. This will cause poor digestion, and it will also effect jaw development and in some cases, prevent correct pronunciation of words. Tooth decay during the early months will also effect future teeth alignment.

Caring for baby teeth!
  • When teeth start to emerge
    Wipe the teeth after nursing, eating and before going to sleep.
  • When molars start to emerge
    Basic care is to be done with a toothbrush.
    Make brushing a regular habit.
    Gently brush your baby’s teeth after nursing, eating and before going to sleep.
Use oral care products according to teeth development
  • When the first teeth emerge
    We recommend using a sheet-type product to wipe the teeth.
  • When molars start to emerge
    Make a habit of brushing by allowing your child to use a training-type toothbrush.
    Have a parent use a finishing-type toothbrush to complete the brushing routine.